Friday, August 12, 2016

Agile Planning: Vertical Slices, Done Criteria & Story Points.

Introduction
Done criteria is what this article focuses on.

In a blog post in SD Times, Agile 2016: Scrum is not done yet, and neither are you, Christina Mulligan describes the state of the industry through the eyes of Dave West, CEO & Product Owner of Scrum.org. A nice double entedre in the blog post title!

Dave West notes:
"What we see is that ‘done’ is being fragmented across many organizational boundaries; people don’t really get it, there is not a universal definition."
This fragmented state of affairs gives rise to another phenomenon, capable of giving a bad rap for the Agile industry. Thus, for example, many software practitioners even discuss about disadvantages of agile.

Vertical Slicing
In the rest of the post, I intend to submit a viewpoint that, hopefully, takes us a little closer to a more organized way of agile planning.

A vertical slice is a user story that is crafted by taking a (vertical) slice through the software stack of the system. (The adjective 'vertical' comes about by the manner most macro architectures are depicted -- end user on top of the picture and the various layers of the software system supporting the end user progressively towards the bottom of the picture. See, for example, an illustration in On the Qualitative Importance of Vertical Slicing in Agile Project Executions).

A collection of vertical slices constitutes a release or a minimum viable product (MVP).

It is useful to keep in mind some of the pitfalls while crafting vertical slices. We can describe these by using a simple model of a web application (after Splitting stories into small, vertical slices):

Done Criteria
Once we accept that a vertical slice is a good way to capture end user functionality, the question then becomes: How do we know that we have a good implementation of the vertical slice? This is where the Done criteria becomes relevant. A user story is not completely specified unless it is accompanied with a Done criteria which ensures, when the criteria are satisfied, that the software representing the slice can indeed be made available for a end user (or a proxy) to play with. (Recall one of the tenets of the Agile Manifesto: Working software over comprehensive documentation). If the Done criteria do not assure us that a vertical slice indeed is worthy of end user review, we cannot reliably predict when we can the make the release available! The key thing to note is that we need the Done criteria to assure us that the vertical slice is really done, when the scrum team announces it is done.

Story Points
With the vertical slices needed for a MVP defined, and their corresponding Done criteria identified, it is time to assess the complexity of implementing each one of the vertical slices. Story points are the abstraction used in the Agile community to assess the work involved in creating the implementation of the story by the scrum team. (It is a function of the scrum team). If the stories are crafted by making use of the INVEST mnemonic, it is generally experienced that stories can be moved around to be worked on in different sprints, during planning certainly, to meet with the goal of producing a shippable product increment every sprint.

Concluding Remarks
So, what have seen here so far for a release or an MVP?
  1. Identify the functionality needed by a end user of the system -- user story -- in terms of vertical slices.
  2. Capture the Done criteria for each vertical slice so that, when the criteria are satisfied, the vertical slice can be part of a product increment.
  3. Assess each vertical slice through the abstraction of story points, and using a representative number for the velocity of the team, arrive at the number of sprints needed.
A book that has influenced this post is:
Mike Cohn. Agile Estimating and Planning. Prentice-Hall, 2006. Kindle Edition.

Acknowledgements
Colleagues at Zymr, Inc. are helpful participants in my Agile journey.

Some Thoughts on Modeling in Jira, a Commercial Tool
Jira is an agile project management tool that is quite popular in the industry. This section talks about one way of modeling vertical slices in Jira.

All vertical slices can be modeled as stories in Jira. Sometimes, it is sufficient to model the components of the slice as sub-tasks in Jira; other times, not. In the latter case, it is best to model them as tasks and, since tasks cannot be assigned story points, the task's complexity can be subsumed by a user story that is dependent on the task.

If a requirement is not a vertical slice, it is best modeled as a task that feeds into a story.

Monday, May 16, 2016

On the Qualitative Importance of Vertical Slicing in Agile Project Executions.

Vertical slicing is quite frequently talked about in agile communities. There are good illustrations of this approach using the cake metaphor.

What is the fundamental value of the vertical sliced approach in software development?

Sunday, May 3, 2015

An Important Class of IoT Devices

Internet of Things (IoT) refers to a large class of devices that can be sprinkled throughout a region of activity where we'd like the sensors to capture detailed information about the interesting region. The 'region' could be a farmland, a bridge, railroad tracks, structural parts of aircraft, and almost anything where there is interest to understand any measurable activity. The sensors achieve particular value if they are completely passive, i.e., do not require battery or any power that requires manual replenishment. The sensors are able to provide important site-specific data than can then be transmitted over the Internet, stored, analyzed, and harvested for important macro observations that could be gleaned from such data, sometimes also known as Big Data.

Tuesday, April 29, 2014

More Video Callings in the Offing on the Internet.

The Skype™ Logo
Microsoft announced today that Skype's Group Video Calling Service Is Now Free. What this means is that Microsoft has decided to monetize Skype's Group Video Conferencing (GVC) services through other means, namely enterprise licenses. (Where else can they go, unless they are able to present higher functionality on a collaboration platform?).

Sunday, February 16, 2014

d3.js and the Dining Philosophers' Problem Visualization.

Recently, I ran into this remarkably versatile tool called d3.js, which is intended to assist JavaScript programmers to visualize various forms of data.

One of the first things I did was to look for any tutorial videos on YouTube, and did I find a treasure trove of d3.js video tutorials! User d3Vienno has around 20 tutorials, many of them in the 10-minute duration, and very easy to follow. (The only thing unusual in the d3Vienno's videos is the narrator's pronunciation of the vowel sound in DOM (Document Object Model) with a \ü\, rather than with a \ä\).

Friday, December 27, 2013

What if Healthcare.gov Development Were Managed using Scrum?

In a Forbes' article, HealthCare.gov Diagnosis: The Government Broke Every Rule Of Project Management, the author lists key reasons why the project failed:
  1. Unrealistic Requirements
  2. Technical Complexity
  3. Integration Responsibility
  4. Fragmented Authority
  5. Loose Metrics
  6. Inadequate Testing
  7. Aggressive Schedules
  8. Administrative Blindness

Saturday, October 5, 2013

Agile Estimating and Planning: A Book Review - Section I.

Why write a review in 2013 about a book published in 2005?

Because, Mike Cohn's book, Agile Estimating and Planning is such a book that lays out the philosophy behind agile planning very beautifully, while leading the reader through day-to-day activities.1

And, as much as I tried to keep the review short, I did not succeed: There are so many nuggets of valuable information throughout the book that I justified making an elaborate review, and decided to publish the review in multiple sections. This post is the first of those.

If your agile development environment already has a set of tools predetermined, such as Rally Software or Jira Agile for example, your day-to-day approach to managing the development may already be somewhat predetermined by the software tool. However, whether you are in such a predetermined environment, or in a pristine environment with possibly no tools other than Microsoft Office, you'll need to recall the basics crisply, and Mike Cohn's book is one excellent reference source.

Friday, July 19, 2013

On Universal Applicability of the Scrum Framework.

Meetup Announcement. (Click to go to Meetup page).
If you listened to Jeff Sutherland on the July 16 talk on "Scrum: The Future of Work", you cannot but walk away with the feeling that scrum methodology is more universally applicable than software development, but the rest of the world is yet to discover that fact. And, his enthusiasm for Scrum's applicability not just in Software Development, but in other parts of Enterprises, in Government, in non-profit organizations, etc., is contagious. Scrum and the Grameen Bank, the Nobel Prize winning microfinance organization?

Tuesday, March 26, 2013

On the Storage Needed to Capture Human DNA

Ever since Watson and Crick solved the DNA puzzle, in 1953, and shared a Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1962 with Wilkins, there has always been interest to store and retrieve DNA information.

However, it was not until the Human Genome Project concluded in 2003, that the entire human genome (of about 3 billion nucleotides) was considered fully decoded 1.

Wednesday, March 20, 2013

SV-ALN Meetup: Be Agile. Scale Up. Stay Lean.

Dean Leffingwell
If you are already familiar with the concepts of Agile methodology at the team level, following Dean Leffingwell when he elaborates on the scalability of the Agile framework is a breeze. Such was my experience yesterday when he presented the Scaled Agile Framework™ (SAF) at the SVALN meetup.

The primary ambition of the Scaled Agile Framework is to take the Agile principles to be effective at the enterprise level.

We have already seen several approaches to utilizing hierarchy in using the Agile methodology at the team level. This framework takes the hierarchy, from a team or a project level, to program and portfolio levels, and recognizes the need for non-functional requirements (NFRs), in addition to the user stories that a user would definitely interact with, and recognizes business epics and architectural epics.

Monday, March 11, 2013

On Managing [Complexity in] Systems Development

Modern society invariably tends to need complex1 systems. (If a system is too 'simple', there may not be any market for it). Consider, for example, some of the successful products in present times:
  1. Smartphones such as the iPhone, the Samsung Galaxy
  2. Tablets such as the iPad, Google Nexus 7
  3. Electric cars such as the Tesla
Each one of the foregoing has, in addition to software, a collection of parts, in several levels of hierarchy, in creating the end user product. (A blog post makes an interesting observation that mature products tend to have not more than 4 levels of hierarchy in their bill of materials).

Saturday, February 25, 2012

SVForum Meetup: Building a Cloud Platform for Real-Time Video: Learnings and Challenges

This meetup on Building a Cloud Platform for Real-Time Video: Learnings and Challenges was a very captivating presentation — except in the beginning, during introductory slides, when it was somewhat slow-moving1 — on how BlueJeans have created a good recipe for videoconferencing service in the cloud.


Monday, August 8, 2011

Is Apple Safari for Windows the best browser for the desktop?

In a previous post, I explored the JavaScript compatibility, on my laptop, of the 5 browsers I regularly use against the ECMA's test suite. That was my first attempt at the comparison, and I didn't think much of it. I undertook that exercise again a month later, yesterday, and I can say with confidence the following:
  1. Chrome, Firefox and IE fare reasonably along the same lines.
  2. Opera shows a lot of holes in its implementation
  3. Safari is the worst performer: crashes in the middle of the test execution, probably due to memory leak.
You can see all the detailed results in a separate web page.

Sunday, July 17, 2011

The Power of CSS (at the Open Web Camp, 2011).

If you are a novice to CSS, you will like this presentation by Estelle Weyl, which I attended yesterday at the Open Web Camp, 2011. If, on the other hand, you know a little of CSS, you'll love this presentation!

In this presentation, you can learn how to produce nice animation effects, such as producing snow any time you want! This use of CSS, as opposed to an equivalent JavaScript code, shows the power of declarative programming, in comparison with its companion, procedural programming.


Friday, July 1, 2011

A Comparison of Browsers: Popularity and JavaScript Compatibility

At the beginning of every month, new statistics are published on browser usage: At the onset of July 2011, as you can see from the diagram below, Chrome is closing in on Firefox, even as IE is losing its market share.

Source: StatCounter Global Stats - Browser Market Share